Octeber, 2010

Octeber, 2010   ||  Volume 14 No.4


Integration of high resolution satellite data and electrical resistivity technique for ground water exploration and exploitation over parts of Mahbubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, India


DNational Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), ISRO / DOS, Govt. of India, Hyderabad – 500 625
E.mail: chandrasekhar_p@nrsc.gov.in

Interpretation of high resolution satellite data had revealed the presence of two major regional lineaments, which are fracture controlled, in an area of about 300 acres of land in parts of Mahbubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh state. These lineaments were successfully identified and accurately traced in the semi-accessible field area. Along these two lineaments, seven possible recharge locations were identified on ground based on the in-field hydrogeological and geomorphological evidences. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys were conducted over them and collected the electrical resistivity data. This data was analyzed, processed and interpreted. Various subsurface geological formations, in the form of different layers, were inferred along with depths, thicknesses and resistivities. Favorable locations for possible occurrence of ground water resources were pinpointed along with their depths and recommended for drilling new bore wells. Subsequently all the recommended wells were drilled, which had proved the occurrence of good quantities of water, precisely as per the recommendations of point locations on ground and depths. Discharge yield tests were also conducted with V-Notch chamber continuously for 24 hrs, for each of the wells and the yields of bore wells were also estimated. They were 154.33, 153.27, 160.05 and 74.92 Litres Per Minute (LPM) respectively for the recommended bore wells. Three of the above can be declared as ‘production wells’ as per CGWB and PHEDs guidelines and the other one appears to be a seasonal source, because of the low yield. However, this well also can be made a permanent source by recharging the existing bund (check dam) in the northern side central portion of the study area. The above wells drilled based on this study can serve the requirement of about 2000 persons a day by running the above bore wells only for a period of
2 ½ hours a day, on an average, as per the prescribed standards of 40 Litres Per Capita per Day (LPCD) for human beings livelihood. Thus the utility of satellite data in conjunction with VES for pinpointing the sites for drilling new bore wells is successfully demonstrated in reality on ground in this result oriented study, which is cost and time effective too.


Assessment of diurnal urban surface temperature and impervious surface of Delhi and its relationship using Multi-Spectral satellite data
Yogesh Kant, Javed Mallick1 and Atiqur Rahman1
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSC), ISRO, Govt. of India, Dehradun - 248 001
1Department of Geography,Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
E.mail : ykanty@yahoo.com, yogesh@iirs.gov.in

Satellite data is used to assess the urban land cover and its thermal characteristics through mapping sub-pixel impervious surface and assessing thermal infrared images. The study aims to calculate urban imperviousness using linear spectral unmixing technique. ASTER dataset were used to estimate land surface temperature (day and night time) over National Capital Delhi using the surface emissivity information at pixel level. The result suggests that the methodology is feasible to estimate NDVI, surface emissivity and surface temperature (with an error of 3 degree) with reasonable accuracy over heterogeneous urban area. Spatial and diurnal distribution of surface temperature associated with ISA (impervious surface area) is studied. The lower imperviousness has low night time surface temperature because of the predominance of non-imperviousness (such as vegetation, soil, pasture lands etc). In contrast, the higher ISA coverage associated with high-density urban areas such as high-density residential, commercial and industrial possessed higher imperviousness values. The relationship between day and night time surface temperature with impervious surface indicated that night time surface temperature has a strong positive correlation (0.82) with impervious index as compared to day time temperature. The results suggests that night time surface temperature gives more information in understanding UHI phenomena than day time due to radiative cooling differences are maximized between urban and surrounding rural locations at night.

South Indian Convergence Zone Model: A new approach to seasonal forecasting of summer monsoon rainfall in India Part I: South Indian Convergence Zone and its role in the development of Indian summer monsoon

Onkari Prasad, O.P. Singh¹ and Sant Prasad²
43, Ritu Apartments, A-4 Paschim Vihar, New Delhi -110 063
1India Meteorological Department, Lodi Road, New Delhi -110 003
²32, Pragati Apartments, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi-110 063
Email:onkaripraad06@yahoo.com; op_singh54@yahoo.com; sant.prasad@gmail.com

Relationship between Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) and South Indian Convergence Zone (SICZ) has been studied using rainfall and cloud data for a period of 29 years (1979,1982-2009).That the SICZ forms an important element of Southwest Monsoon (SWM) circulation system, plays a crucial role in its development and its intra-seasonal changes (‘active’/ ’break’ cycle) have been confirmed. The intensity of SICZ is inversely related to the intensity of SWM, in general: When SICZ is weak and close to equator allowing large Cross Equatorial Flow (CEF) of southeast trades into the North Indian Ocean (NIO) SWM is active and vice versa. This inverse relationship also exists between the activity of SICZ during the period January-May. It is shown that the features of SICZ, as seen in the patterns of clouds developing in the near equatorial regions of Indian Ocean (IO) during the period January-May, contain signals about likely performance of summer monsoon over India. A method of quantifying the activity of SICZ and detecting the signals, as precursor to the performance of SWM over the Indian subcontinent, are discussed.

High resolution satellite data for optimal land use planning - A case study of Malkapur and Kummera Villages, Chevella Mandal, Rangareddy District, Andhra Pradesh
A.Simhachalam, P.Kesava Rao, E.Amminedu1, V.Madhava Rao, R.R.Hermon, Ch.Vasudeva Rao1 N.Bhaskara Rao1 and B.S.Prakasa Rao1
Centre on Geo-Informatic Applicatios in Rural Development (C-GARD),
National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD), Hyderabad - 500 030
1Department of Geo-Engineering, College of Engineering,
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003

Land use planning the key for judicious and optimum utilization of available natural resources is indispensable for development of any region from local to trans-national level. In the present paper remote sensing data combined with geographic information systems (GIS), an effective technology has been applied for land use planning in Malkapur and Kummera villages, Chevella mandal, Rangareddy District, Andhra Pradesh. Land use/land cover, land capability and groundwater potential generated on 1:25,000 scale. The maps are integrated after assigning weightage factors to the identified features in each of the thematic maps depending upon their characteristic features/importance. On the basis of present investigation the study area could be classified into various optimal land use planning units. The results show that integration of all attributes provides more accurate information for optimal land use planning.



GPS Position Error Analysis for Precise Surveying and GAGAN Applications over the Indian Subcontinent
V.Venkata Rao, G.Sasibhushana Rao1, M.Madhavi Latha2 and M.N.V.S.S.Kumar1

Tirumala Engg College, Narasaraopet, Guntur (Dt), A.P.,
1Department of ECE, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam – 530 003
2Department of ECE, JNTU College of Engg, JNTU, Hyderabad
E-mail: vvenkatarao2k9tec@gmail.com

The multipurpose usage of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) has developed enormously within the last three decades. With the elimination of Selective Availability (SA) on May 2nd, 2000, the usefulness of the system for civilian users was even more pronounced. The GPS accuracy relies in the precise knowledge of the satellite orbits and the time. In this paper a non recursive point solution approach algorithm is proposed for the receiver position estimation. The results are compared with a recursive least squares approximation and multipolynomial resultant approach methods. The position error analysis is made for all the three methods. The minimum, maximum, mean (x), standard deviation (s) and variance (s2) of the X position errors are 1.763m, 23.587m, 16.198m, 6.001m and 36.012m2 respectively due to the proposed algorithm. The analysis clearly shows that the proposed algorithm gives a better user position than the other two methods and particularly helpful for surveyors and GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) users over the Indian subcontinent.